Shagufta Perveen*Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

*Address all correspondence to: shagufta792000

1. Terpenes và terpenoids

Natural products are the compounds which isolate from different natural sources such as plants, animals, microbes, insects, plant pathogens, and endophytes và marine. These are known as secondary metabolites since they are formed due khổng lồ the enzymatic resections of primary metabolites (amino acids, sugars, vitamins, etc.). Terpenes belong khổng lồ the biggest class of secondary metabolites and basically consist of five carbon isoprene units which are assembled khổng lồ each other (many isoprene units) by thousands of ways. Terpenes are simple hydrocarbons, while terpenoids are modified class of terpenes with different functional groups & oxidized methyl group moved or removed at various positions. Terpenoids are divided into monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, sesterpenes, and triterpenes depending on its carbon units (Figure1). Most of the terpenoids with the variation in their structures are biologically active và are used worldwide for the treatment of many diseases. Many terpenoids inhibited different human cancer cells and are used as anticancer drugs such as Taxol and its derivatives. Many flavorings and nice fragrances are consisting on terpenes because of its nice aroma. Terpenes và its derivatives are used as antimalarial drugs such as artemisinin và related compounds. Meanwhile, terpenoids play a diverse role in the field of foods, drugs, cosmetics, hormones, vitamins, and so on. This chapter provides introduction and information on the bioactive terpenes isolated currently from different natural sources.

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2. Monoterpenes

Monoterpenes consist of 10 carbon atoms with two isoprene units and molecular formula C10H16. These are naturally present in the essential and fixed oils of plants và related sources. Monoterpenes are structurally divided into the acyclic, monocyclic, & bicyclic type of compound. The compounds belong lớn this class usually have strong aroma and odor & are used in many pharmaceutical companies. Mixture of different monoterpene-based oils is used as fragrances for making perfumes and in other cosmetics. Most of the monoterpenes are active biologically with strong antibacterial activities. Several studies have shown in vitroand in vivoantitumor activity of many essential oils obtained from plants. The antitumor activity of essential oils of many species has been related lớn the presence of monoterpenes in their composition <1>. Herein, we are discussing some of the recently published active monoterpenes (Table1, Figure2).

NamesPlant sourceActivityRef.

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9-OH-isoegomaketone <(2E)-1-(3-furanyl)-4-OH-4-Me-2-penten-1-oneLeaves of Perilla frutescens var. CrispaIt exhibited inhibitory activity on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells with an IC50 value of 14.4μM.Compounds in the SC-CO2 extracts of the radiation mutant cultivar and the original plant were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection.<2>