Type 2 diabetes is the most common khung of diabetes.
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You have Type 2 diabetes if your tissues are resistant lớn insulin, and if you lack enough insulin to lớn overcome this resistance.
You have Type 2 diabetes if your tissues are resistant to lớn insulin, & if you lack enough insulin lớn overcome this resistance. Type 2 diabetes is the most common khung of diabetes of diabetes worldwide and accounts for 90-95% of cases.
Your risk of type 2 diabetes typically increases when you are:OlderLess activeOverweight or obese
Other risk factors are:Family history of diabetes in close relativesBeing of African, Asian, Native American, Latino, or Pacific Islander ancestryHigh blood pressureHigh blood levels of fats, known as triglycerides, coupled with low levels of high-density lipoprotein, known as HDL, in the blood streamPrior diagnosis of pre-diabetes such as glucose intolerance or elevated blood sugarIn women, a history of giving birth to large babies (over 9 lbs) and/or diabetes during pregnancy
Type 2 diabetes is strongly inherited
These are some of the statistics:80-90% of people with Type 2 diabetes have other family members with diabetes.10-15% of children of a diabetic parent will develop diabetes.If one identical twin has type 2 diabetes, there is up to a 75% chance that the other will also be diabetic.There are many genetic or molecular causes of type 2 diabetes, all of which result in a high blood sugar.As yet, there is no single genetic test to determine who is at risk for type 2 diabetes.To develop type 2 diabetes, you must be born with the genetic traits for diabetes.
The hallmark of type 2 diabetes is resistance to lớn the action of insulin và insufficient insulin khổng lồ overcome that resistance
Insulin resistance và insufficient insulin production
Insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes means the signal insulin gives lớn a cell is weakened. This results in less glucose uptake by muscle and fat cells và a reduction in insulin mediated activities inside cells. Compounding this problem of resistance, there is additional defect in insulin production & secretion by the insulin producing cells, the beta cells in the pancreas.
As a group, everyone with with type 2 diabetes has both insulin resistance và an inability to lớn overcome the resistance by secreting more insulin. But any given individual with type 2 may have more resistance than insulin insufficiency or the opposite, more insulin insufficiency than resistance. & the problems may be mild or severe. It is believed that the wide range of clinical presentation is because there are many, many genetic causes – and combinations of genetic causes – of type 2 diabetes. At present there is no single genetic kiểm tra for type 2 diabetes. The diagnosis is made on the basis of the individual having clinical features consistent with type 2 diabetes, & by excluding other forms of diabetes.
The progression from having a genetic predisposition lớn type 2 diabetes & the development of an elevated blood sugar or overt diabetes is affected by environmental factors
Development of type 2 diabetes
The development of type 2 diabetes is thought lớn be a progression from normal blood sugars khổng lồ pre-diabetes lớn a diagnosis of overt diabetes. These stages are defined by blood sugar levels.
The timeline lớn developing an elevated blood sugar depends on many environmental factors (such as being overweight, physical activity, age, diet, illness, pregnancy, and medication) và also on how strong the gen traits are for diabetes. Ultimately, pre-diabetes và diabetes occur when the pancreas cannot make enough insulin to overcome the insulin resistance. Historically pre-diabetes và type 2 diabetes has been diagnosed when individuals are older; however, because of a wide-spread epidemic of obesity which causes insulin resistance, the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is occurring more frequently at younger và younger ages.
People born with the genetic traits for diabetes are considered khổng lồ be pre-disposed. Genetically predisposed people may have normal blood sugar levels, but many will have other markers of insulin resistance such, as elevated triglycerides and hypertension. When environmental factors are introduced, such as weight gain, lack of physical activity, or pregnancy, they are likely to develop diabetes.
Some individuals with other types of diabetes may be misdiagnosed as having type 2 diabetes. Up to 10% of individuals who are initially diagnosed with type 2 diabetes may actually have an adult onset of type 1 diabetes also known as LADA or Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adults.
Pre-diabetes is a stage between not having diabetes & having type 2 diabetes. You have pre-diabetes when your blood sugars are above normal, but not so high as lớn meet the diagnostic criteria for type 2 diabetes. One in three people with pre-diabetes will go on lớn develop type 2 diabetes; however, with the correct lifestyle changes, including exercise, weight loss, a healthy diet, and the correct medications, the odds decrease so that only one in nine pre-diabetic people develop type 2 diabetes. In some cases, your blood sugar levels can return to lớn normal. However, even if blood sugar levels return to normal, the genetic risk for type 2 diabetes remains unchanged – you must continue positive lifestyle changes, & medication or risk the return of elevated blood sugar levels.
Is Type 2 diabetes increasing?
Type 2 diabetes is increasing at an epidemic rate, and is being diagnosed at younger và younger ages. The most likely reason for this increase is that individuals with a genetic susceptibility lớn type 2 diabetes are developing the disease due khổng lồ lifestyle changes – namely less physical activity, weight gain, và longer life span.
The good news is that scientific research confirms that by eating healthy foods, exercising regularly and maintaining an ideal body toàn thân weight, you can delay or prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes.
Other conditions associated with type 2 diabetes
The insulin resistance syndrome
Individuals with type 2 diabetes are more likely khổng lồ be diagnosed with other medical problems such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension, obesity & dyslipidemia. Insulin resistance is thought to lớn worsen and possibly directly cause these problems. The optimal medical care of type 2 diabetes includes not only controlling the blood glucose but also treating high blood pressure, high cholesterol or triglycerides, reducing excess weight & staying physically fit.
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